We report the usefulness of a 3.4-kb mitochondrial genome deletion (3.4 mtdelta) for molecular definition of benign, malignant, and proximal to malignant (PTM) prostate needle biopsy specimens. The 3.4 mtdelta was identified through long-extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of frozen prostate cancer samples. A quantitative PCR assay was developed to measure the levels of the 3.4 mtdelta in clinical samples. For normalization, amplifications of a nuclear target and total mitochondrial DNA were included. Cycle threshold data from these targets were used to calculate a score for each biopsy sample. In a pilot study of 38 benign, 29 malignant, and 41 PTM biopsy specimens, the difference between benign and malignant core biopsy specimens was well differentiated (P & .0001), with PTM indistinguishable from malignant samples (P = .833). Results of a larger study were identical. In comparison with histopathologic examination for benign and malignant samples, the sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 71%, respectively, and the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.83 for the deletion. In a blinded external validation study, the sensitivity and specificity were 83% and 79%, and the area under the ROC curve was 0.87. The 3.4 mtdelta may be useful in defining malignant, benign, and PTM prostate tissues.