Intranasal immunization of mice with a formalin-inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine co-formulated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and polyphosphazenes results in enhanced protection

J Gen Virol. 2008 Jan;89(Pt 1):250-260. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.83300-0.


As respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) targets the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory tract, induction of both systemic and mucosal immunity will be critical for optimal protection. In this study, the ability of an intranasally delivered, formalin-inactivated bovine RSV (FI-BRSV) vaccine co-formulated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and polyphosphazenes (PP) to induce systemic and mucosal immunity, as well as protection from BRSV challenge, was evaluated. Intranasal immunization of mice with FI-BRSV formulated with CpG ODN and PP resulted in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, characterized by enhanced production of BRSV-specific serum IgG, as well as increased gamma interferon and decreased interleukin-5 production by in vitro-restimulated splenocytes. These mice also developed mucosal immune responses, as was evident from increased production of BRSV-specific IgG and IgA in lung-fragment cultures. Indeed, the increases in serum and mucosal IgG, and in particular mucosal IgA and virus-neutralizing antibodies, were the most critical differences observed between FI-BRSV formulated with both CpG ODN and PP in comparison to formulations with CpG ODN, non-CpG ODN or PP individually. Finally, FI-BRSV/CpG/PP was the only formulation that resulted in a significant reduction in viral replication upon BRSV challenge. Co-formulation of CpG ODN and PP is a promising new vaccine platform technology that may have applications in mucosal immunization in humans.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • CpG Islands
  • Dinucleoside Phosphates*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Interferon-gamma / analysis
  • Interleukin-5 / analysis
  • Lung / immunology
  • Lung / virology
  • Mice
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides / chemistry
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides / therapeutic use*
  • Organophosphorus Compounds*
  • Polymers*
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • Retroviridae Infections / immunology*
  • Spleen / immunology
  • Spumavirus / immunology*
  • Vaccines, Inactivated*


  • Dinucleoside Phosphates
  • Interleukin-5
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Polymers
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • poly(phosphazene)
  • cytidylyl-3'-5'-guanosine
  • Interferon-gamma