Sixteen postmenarcheal Type 1 diabetic adolescent girls were randomized into training (involving aerobic and strength exercises) and nontraining groups. Body composition (skinfold thickness), aerobic fitness (PWC170), plasma lipids, serum apolipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), leptin, and adiponectin were assessed before and after the 6-month period. After the 6-month period, fat mass and leptin increased significantly in the nontraining group but not in the training group. Conversely, in the latter group, fat-free mass increased (P < .01). Moreover, PWC170 improved and apolipoproteinB:apolipoproteinA-1 ratio decreased with physical training (P < .05). Thus, physical training reduces cardiovascular risks and the increase of insulin resistance risk factors in diabetic adolescent girls.