Diagnostic bronchoscopy in hematology and oncology patients with acute respiratory failure: prospective multicenter data

Crit Care Med. 2008 Jan;36(1):100-7. doi: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000295590.33145.C4.


Objective: To describe the diagnostic yields of test strategies with and without fiberoptic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (FO-BAL), as well as outcomes, in cancer patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF).

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: Fifteen intensive care units in France.

Patients: In all, 148 cancer patients, including 45 bone marrow transplant recipients (27 allogeneic, 18 autologous) with hypoxemic ARF.

Intervention: None.

Results: Overall, 146 causes of ARF were identified in 128 patients (97 [66.4%] pulmonary infections). The cause of ARF was identified in 50.5% of the 101 patients who underwent FO-BAL and in 66.7% of the other patients. FO-BAL was the only conclusive test in 34 (33.7%) of the 101 investigated patients. Respiratory status deterioration after FO-BAL occurred in 22 of 45 (48.9%) nonintubated patients, including 16 (35.5%) patients who required ventilatory support. Hospital mortality was 55.4% (82 deaths) overall and was not significantly different in the groups with and without FO-BAL. By multivariate analysis, mortality was affected by characteristics of the malignancy (remission, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation), cause of ARF (ARF during neutropenia recovery, cause not identified), and need for life-sustaining treatments (mechanical ventilation and vasopressors).

Conclusion: In critically ill cancer patients with ARF, a diagnostic strategy that does not include FO-BAL may be as effective as FO-BAL without exposing the patients to respiratory status deterioration.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Aged
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage / statistics & numerical data
  • Bronchoscopy / statistics & numerical data*
  • Causality
  • Female
  • France / epidemiology
  • Hematologic Diseases / complications*
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms / complications*
  • Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Respiratory Insufficiency / diagnosis*
  • Respiratory Insufficiency / etiology*
  • Respiratory Insufficiency / mortality
  • Risk Factors