Endotoxin causes pulmonary hypertension by upregulating smooth muscle endothelin type-B receptors: role of aldose reductase

Shock. 2008 Aug;30(2):189-96. doi: 10.1097/shk.0b013e318160f03b.


Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor and mitogen, is upregulated in pulmonary tissue during endotoxemia and contributes markedly to endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension. It is, however, unknown whether the ET receptors, ET(A) and ET(B), are differentially regulated in endotoxemic pulmonary vasculature and how this may impact on pulmonary vascular tone. To investigate this topic, we used isolated perfused lungs, pulmonary endothelial cells (ECs), and pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the rat. During a 6-h endotoxin exposure, isolated perfused lungs developed significant pulmonary hypertension that was markedly attenuated by antagonizing ET(A) or ET(B) receptors using subtype-selective or a mixed ET(A/B) receptor antagonist. Peptide levels of big ET-1 and ET-1 and gene expression of prepro-ET-1 were increased after endotoxin challenge in all tissues. In endotoxemic isolated perfused lungs and ECs, the significant rise of mature ET-1 seen in controls after ET(B) receptor or mixed antagonism disappeared completely. However, this effect was preserved in endotoxemic SMCs. In ECs, endotoxin markedly downregulated maximum ET(B) receptor sites and ET(B) mRNA levels, whereas in SMCs, it generated substantial ET(B) receptor upregulation and moderate ET(A) receptor downregulation. The aldose reductase inhibitors sorbinil and zopolrestat mitigated endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension, ET-1 stimulation, and differential ET(B) receptor regulation. We conclude that endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension in the rat results from a loss of endothelial and concomitant gain of vascular smooth muscle ET(B) receptors. These changes are at least partly mediated by aldose reductase.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Aldehyde Reductase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Aldehyde Reductase / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Benzothiazoles / pharmacology
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Endotoxins / pharmacology*
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / enzymology
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / metabolism*
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / physiopathology*
  • Imidazolidines / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Muscle, Smooth / cytology
  • Muscle, Smooth / drug effects
  • Muscle, Smooth / enzymology*
  • Muscle, Smooth / metabolism
  • Perfusion
  • Phthalazines / pharmacology
  • Pulmonary Wedge Pressure / drug effects
  • Pulmonary Wedge Pressure / physiology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Receptor, Endothelin B / biosynthesis*
  • Receptor, Endothelin B / physiology
  • Up-Regulation / drug effects*
  • Up-Regulation / physiology


  • Benzothiazoles
  • Endotoxins
  • Imidazolidines
  • Phthalazines
  • Receptor, Endothelin B
  • zopolrestat
  • Aldehyde Reductase
  • sorbinil