Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent used as a food additive which causes kidney damage as a potent nephrotoxic agent, and the mechanism may be explained by the generation of oxygen free radicals. Our experiments showed that single intraperitoneal administration of 200 mg/kg KBrO3 could induce serious kidney damage, with an increase in serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels. Five-day oral administration of bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg resulted in a reversal in serum BUN and creatinine to normal levels and decreased kidney malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and xanthine oxidase (XOD) levels. Also, bilberry extract improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) levels in kidney tissue, which showed that bilberry extract reduced the degree of oxidative stress and kidney damage induced by KBrO3. These findings demonstrate that the protective effect of bilberry extract is attributed to its free radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect.