In total, 96 carbapenem-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were obtained from 25 hospitals in 17 European countries. Imipenem MICs ranged from <4 to 128 mg/L on retesting by Etest, with MICs > or =16 mg/L being associated with the carriage of genes encoding at least one other class D carbapenemase in addition to the intrinsic OXA-51-like enzyme. Molecular typing results obtained by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of ApaI-digested chromosomal DNA, were highly congruent, with 17 different PFGE types being delineated at a cut-off similarity level of 85%. With few exceptions, multiple isolates from a single hospital belonged to the same PFGE type. Seven sequence groups were identified among the 96 A. baumannii isolates, with the majority of isolates (n = 81) belonging to the previously defined sequence groups 1 and 2, which each included eight PFGE types. These two multinational lineages included the previously defined European clones II and I, respectively, but the problem of resistant A. baumannii in Europe appeared not to be confined solely to these two European clones. Rather, two broader lineages of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii now seem to be spreading throughout Europe.