The role of hormonal therapy in the management of prostate cancer has been known for almost half a century. However, many controversies exist regarding the place and timing of androgen deprivation therapy. An increasing spectrum for the use of androgen deprivation therapy has been assessed, including multimodal treatment with radiation therapy. New approaches to androgen deprivation have been explored, including LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) antagonists and improved depot formulations. Recent evidence about the chemo-sensitivity of prostate cancer has opened avenues for treatment of hormone refractory disease and the combination of hormonal and chemotherapy is being studied at various stages of the disease. We explore the evidence, controversies and future of androgen deprivation therapy and critically reexamine the dogmas surrounding hormone therapy for prostate cancer.