Oscillations in neural activity are a prominent feature of many brain states. Individual hippocampal neurons exhibit intrinsic membrane potential oscillations and intrinsic resonance in the theta frequency range. We found that the subthreshold resonance frequency of CA1 pyramidal neurons was location dependent, varying more than 3-fold between the soma and the distal dendrites. Furthermore, activity- and NMDA-receptor-dependent long-term plasticity increased this resonance frequency through changes in h channel properties. The increase in resonance frequency and an associated reduction in excitability were nearly identical in the soma and the first 300 mum of the apical dendrites. These spatially widespread changes accompanying long-term synaptic potentiation also reduced the neuron's ability to elicit spikes evoked through a nonpotentiated synaptic pathway. Our results suggest that the frequency response of these neurons depends on the dendritic location of their inputs and that activity can regulate their response dynamics within an oscillating neural network.