Biomolecular gradients in cell culture systems

Lab Chip. 2008 Jan;8(1):34-57. doi: 10.1039/b711887b. Epub 2007 Dec 6.


Biomolecule gradients have been shown to play roles in a wide range of biological processes including development, inflammation, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. Elucidation of these phenomena requires the ability to expose cells to biomolecule gradients that are quantifiable, controllable, and mimic those that are present in vivo. Here we review the major biological phenomena in which biomolecule gradients are employed, traditional in vitro gradient-generating methods developed over the past 50 years, and new microfluidic devices for generating gradients. Microfluidic gradient generators offer greater levels of precision, quantitation, and spatiotemporal gradient control than traditional methods, and may greatly enhance our understanding of many biological phenomena. For each method, we outline the salient features, capabilities, and applications.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Factors / metabolism*
  • Biological Factors / pharmacology*
  • Cell Culture Techniques / instrumentation
  • Cell Culture Techniques / methods*
  • Cell Physiological Phenomena / drug effects*
  • Microfluidic Analytical Techniques / methods
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Time Factors


  • Biological Factors