The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes of normal and abnormal growth, development and health from fetal life until young adulthood. In total, 9,778 mothers were enrolled in the study. Prenatal and postnatal data collection is conducted by physical examinations, questionnaires, interviews, ultrasound examinations and biological samples. Major efforts have been conducted for collecting biological specimens including DNA, blood for phenotypes and urine samples. In this paper, the collection, processing and storage of these biological specimens are described. Together with detailed phenotype measurements, these biological specimens form a unique resource for epidemiological studies focused on environmental exposures, genetic determinants and their interactions in relation to growth, health and development from fetal life onwards.