Background: Nabilone has been approved to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Recent studies have explored cannabinoids in pain management.
Objectives: To review the evidence for the use of cannabinoids in general and nabilone in particular; i) in managing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting; and ii) in treating pain.
Method: A systematic review of published English literature used the terms: cancer, cannabinoid, nabilone, nausea, pain, tetrahydrocannabinol and vomiting as search terms. Reviews, meta-analyses and treatment trials were reviewed.
Results/conclusions: Nabilone is superior to placebo, domperidone and prochlorperazine but not metoclopramide or chlorpromazine. Cannabinoids do not add to benefits of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists. Side effects are greater for nabilone than for prochlorperazine, in most studies patients prefered nabilone over prochlorperazine. Nabilone is ineffective in acute pain but benefits in neuropathic pain and central hypersensitization. Recent guidelines place nabilone as a second to fourth line drug for neuropathic pain.