Resveratrol has been shown to have beneficial effects on diseases related to oxidant and/or inflammatory processes and extends the lifespan of simple organisms including rodents. The objective of the present study was to estimate the dietary intake of resveratrol and piceid (R&P) present in foods, and to identify the principal dietary sources of these compounds in the Spanish adult population. For this purpose, a food composition database (FCDB) of R&P in Spanish foods was compiled. The study included 40,685 subjects aged 35-64 years from northern and southern regions of Spain who were included in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain cohort. Usual food intake was assessed by personal interviews using a computerised version of a validated diet history method. An FCDB with 160 items was compiled. The estimated median and mean of R&P intake were 100 and 933 microg/d respectively. Approximately, 32% of the population did not consume R&P. The most abundant of the four stilbenes studied was trans-piceid (53.6%), followed by trans-resveratrol (20.9%), cis-piceid (19.3%) and cis-resveratrol (6.2%). The most important source of R&P was wines (98.4%) and grape and grape juices (1.6%), whereas peanuts, pistachios and berries contributed to less than 0.01%. For this reason the pattern of intake of R&P was similar to the wine pattern. This is the first time that R&P intake has been estimated in a Mediterranean country.