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, 116 (5), 603-12

Indian Rice "Kasalath" Contains Genes That Improve Traits of Japanese Premium Rice "Koshihikari"

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Indian Rice "Kasalath" Contains Genes That Improve Traits of Japanese Premium Rice "Koshihikari"

Y Madoka et al. Theor Appl Genet.

Abstract

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), in which chromosomal segments of the Indian landrace "Kasalath" replace the corresponding endogenous segments in the genome of the Japanese premium rice "Koshihikari", are available and together cover the entire genome. Chromosome regions affecting a trait (CRATs) can be identified by comparison of phenotypes with genotypes of CSSLs. We detected 99 CRATs for 15 agronomic or morphological traits. "Kasalath" had positively acting alleles in 53 CRATs. Its CRATs increased panicle number per plant by up to 23.3%, grain number per panicle by up to 30.8%, and total grain number by up to 15.1%, relative to "Koshihikari". CRATs were identified for grain size (grain thickness and width), with positive effects of about 5.0%. A CRAT on chromosome 8 almost doubled the weight of roots in uppermost soil layers compared to "Koshihikari". Additionally, "Kasalath" possessed CRATs for higher lodging resistance (reduction in plant height and increase in stem diameter). In some cases, multiple CRATs were detected in the same chromosome regions. Therefore, CSSLs with these chromosome segments might be useful breeding materials for the simultaneous improvement of multiple traits. Five CRATs, one for plant height on chromosome 1, one for stem diameter on chromosome 8, and three for heading date on chromosomes 6, 7, and 8 overlapped with the corresponding QTLs that already had been mapped with back-crossed inbred lines of "Nipponbare" and "Kasalath". In both "Koshihikari" CRATs and "Nipponbare" QTLs, "Kasalath" had similar effects.

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