Background: Carboplatin-based regimens have demonstrated activity in pediatric patients with low-grade glioma (LGG). However, carboplatin hypersensitivity reaction (Cb HSR) represents a common and limiting factor for the continuation of therapy.
Methods: The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence, characteristics, and management of Cb HSR and to detail their impact on outcome. The authors conducted a comprehensive, national, retrospective review of children who were diagnosed with LGG between 1985 and 2004 and received treatment with carboplatin.
Results: One hundred five patients from 10 Canadian centers were included. The median patient age at diagnosis was 3.5 years (range, 0.3-16.8 years), and 33 patients (31.4%) had neurofibromatosis type 1. Carboplatin was administered monthly in 46 children and weekly in 59 children. Forty-four patients (41.9%) developed Cb HSR after a median of 10.5 infusions (range, 3-39 infusions). Cb HSR occurred significantly earlier among children on the weekly schedule (4.4 months vs 9.1 months; P = .02). The first allergic reaction was grade I or II in 36 patients (82%). The cumulative incidence of Cb HSR increased with the number of infusions, and there was no evidence of a plateau. The only predictive factor was being a girl rather than a boy (P = .02). Thirty-four of 44 patients with Cb HSR were re-exposed to carboplatin, and 24 of 34 patients (70.5%) had recurrent Cb HSR. A desensitization approach did not provide any advantage compared with premedication alone for altering Cb HSR. The median number of additional Cb infusions delivered was 4 (range, 0.5-34 infusions). The effect of Cb HSR on the 5-year progression-free survival rate was not statistically significant (P = .1).
Conclusions: Forty-two percent of children with LGG who received carboplatin regimens experienced Cb HSR. Most rechallenged children had recurrent Cb HSR despite Cb HSR-altering regimens. Cb HSR did not have an impact on progression-free survival.
Cancer 2008. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.