Factors influencing survival after bypass procedures in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinomas

Am J Surg. 2008 Feb;195(2):221-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2007.02.026.


Background: Patients with occult metastasis or locally nonresectable pancreatic cancer found during surgical exploration have a limited life expectancy. We sought to define markers in these patients that could predict survival and thus aid decision making for selection of the most appropriate therapeutic palliative option.

Methods: In a prospective 4-year single-center study, 136 consecutive patients with obstructive pancreatic cancer and intraoperative diagnosis of nonresectable or disseminated pancreatic cancer underwent a palliative surgical bypass procedure. Potential factors predicting survival were evaluated.

Results: Ninety-eight patients had metastatic disease and 38 locally advanced disease. Surgical morbidity rate was 16 %, re-operation rate 1%, and overall in-hospital mortality 4%. Univariate analysis showed American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, pain, operation time, presence of metastasis, and levels of leukocytes, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 were associated significantly with survival. The multivariate analysis identified ASA score, presence of liver metastasis, pain, CA 19-9, and CEA levels as independent indicators for poor survival. Patients with none or 1 of these risk factors had a median survival of 13.5 months, whereas patients with 4 or 5 risk factors had a median survival of 3.5 months.

Conclusions: The clinical markers identified predict poor outcome for patients with palliative bypass surgery and therefore aid the appropriate selection of either surgical bypass or endoscopic stenting in these patients.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / mortality
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adenocarcinoma / secondary*
  • Adenocarcinoma / surgery*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anastomosis, Surgical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Palliative Care / methods*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods*
  • Pancreaticoduodenectomy / mortality*
  • Probability
  • Prognosis
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quality of Life
  • Risk Factors
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Survival Analysis
  • Treatment Outcome