Background: Chronic kidney disease, undiagnosed in a significant number of adults, is a public health problem. Given the systemic inflammatory response to periodontal disease, we hypothesized that periodontal disease could be associated with chronic kidney disease.
Study design: Cross-sectional.
Setting & participants: We identified 12,947 adults 18 years or older with information for kidney function and at least one risk factor in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Predictor: The main predictor was periodontal status. Other nontraditional and traditional risk factors included socioeconomic status, health status, health behavior, biomarker levels, anthropometric assessment, and health care utilization.
Outcomes & measurements: Chronic kidney disease was defined using the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative stages 3 and 4 with a moderate to severe decrease in kidney function (glomerular filtration rate, 15 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models assessed the associations between chronic kidney disease and periodontal disease and other nontraditional risk factors.
Results: Chronic kidney disease prevalence was 3.6%; periodontal disease prevalence was 6.0%; and edentulism prevalence was 10.5%. Adults with periodontal disease and edentulous adults were twice as likely to have chronic kidney disease (adjusted odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 2.21; adjusted odds ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.34 to 2.56, respectively) after simultaneously adjusting for other traditional and nontraditional risk factors.
Limitations: Temporal association is unknown.
Conclusions: Periodontal disease and its severe consequence, edentulism, were independently associated with chronic kidney disease after adjusting for other traditional and nontraditional risk factors. This model could contribute to identifying individuals at risk of chronic kidney disease and reduce its burden.