Normative pediatric visual acuity using single surrounded HOTV optotypes on the Electronic Visual Acuity Tester following the Amblyopia Treatment Study protocol

J AAPOS. 2008 Apr;12(2):145-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2007.08.014. Epub 2007 Dec 26.


Purpose: To provide normative pediatric visual acuity data using HOTV optotypes presented on the Electronic Visual Acuity Tester following the Amblyopia Treatment Study (ATS) protocol.

Methods: Monocular testing was conducted on 384 healthy full-term children ranging from 3 to 10 years of age (mean, 5.4 years; SD, 1.8 years). A total of 373 children completed monocular testing of each eye. In addition, 23 adults (mean, 28.7 years; SD, 4.9 years) were tested for comparison. Both monocular visual acuity and interocular acuity differences were recorded.

Results: Mean visual acuity improved by slightly more than one line (0.12 logMAR) from 3 years of age to adulthood, increasing from 0.08 logMAR to -0.04 logMAR (F(6,400) = 26.3, p < 2.0 x 10(-26)). At all ages, mean interocular acuity difference was less than one line on a standard acuity chart (overall mean difference = 0.04 logMAR; SD, 0.06 logMAR).

Conclusions: These results represent the first normative data reported for HOTV optotypes using the ATS protocol on the Electronic Visual Acuity Tester. These data may play an important role in clinical practice, screening, and clinical research.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amblyopia / physiopathology*
  • Amblyopia / therapy*
  • Blacks
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Electronics
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Reference Values
  • Texas
  • Vision Tests / instrumentation*
  • Vision, Monocular / physiology
  • Visual Acuity / physiology*
  • Whites