Background: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an important enzyme in the metabolism of xenobiotics. NQO1 (609)C --> T (NQO1*2) has been reported to be associated with reduced enzyme activity, benzene-induced hematotoxicity, and acute leukemia. Incidences of multiple myeloma show interethnic variation and exposure to asbestos, petroleum products, and diesel exhaust is a risk factor for multiple myeloma. We studied the associations of NQO1 polymorphism with multiple myeloma risk, stage, and prognostic factors (hemoglobin, calcium, beta(2)-microglobulin, M-protein and creatinine).
Methods: The frequency of NQO1 polymorphism was investigated in 117 myeloma patients and 166 controls. NQO1 genetic polymorphism was determined by TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Prognostic factors were obtained from the patients' medical records.
Results: The frequencies of the NQO1*1/*1, *1/*2, and *2/*2 genotypes were 31.6%, 63.2%, and 5.1% in the patients, whereas the respective figures in the controls were 31.9%, 48.3%, and 19,9%. The frequency of NQO1*2/*2 was significantly lower in patients than in controls and the odds ratio (OR) was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.68) to NQO1*1/*1 genotype, indicating a decreased risk for multiple myeloma. There were no significant differences in tumor stages and other prognostic factors among NQO1 genotypes.
Conclusions: A risk for multiple myeloma decreased in NQO1*2/*2 genotype in Koreans. We report, for the first time, that NQO1 polymorphism is associated with multiple myeloma risk.