Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the main causes of childhood blindness. Worldwide, there are more than 50,000 children blind due to retinopathy of prematurity. Visual impairment is a consequence of retinal detachment. It can be detected by serial ophthalmologic examination of infants at risk, and those identified with the severe form of the disease can be treated by laser or cryotherapy, which can decrease significantly the blindness due to ROP. The Brazilian Society of Pediatrics, Brazilian Council of Ophthalmology and Brazilian Society of Pediatric Ophthalmology suggest a guideline for the detection and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity in Brazil. This document was based on the results of the I Workshop of Retinopathy of Prematurity and presents the attributes for the implementation of an efficient diagnostic and treatment program.