Mazor, R., Korenstein-Ilan, A., Barbul, A., Eshet, Y., Shahadi, A., Jerby, E. and Korenstein, R. Increased Levels of Numerical Chromosome Aberrations after In Vitro Exposure of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields for 72 Hours. Radiat. Res. 169, 28-37 (2008). We investigated the effects of 72 h in vitro exposure of 10 human lymphocyte samples to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (800 MHz, continuous wave) on genomic instability. The lymphyocytes were exposed in a specially designed waveguide resonator at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 2.9 and 4.1 W/kg in a temperature range of 36-37 degrees C. The induced aneuploidy of chromosomes 1, 10, 11 and 17 was determined by interphase FISH using semi-automated image analysis. We observed increased levels of aneuploidy depending on the chromosome studied as well as on the level of exposure. In chromosomes 1 and 10, there was increased aneuploidy at the higher SAR, while for chromosomes 11 and 17, the increases were observed only for the lower SAR. Multisomy (chromosomal gains) appeared to be the primary contributor to the increased aneuploidy. The effect of temperature on the level of aneuploidy was examined over the range of 33.5-40 degrees C for 72 h with no statistically significant difference in the level of aneuploidy compared to 37 degrees C. These findings suggest the possible existence of an athermal effect of RF radiation that causes increased levels of aneuploidy. These results contribute to the assessment of potential health risks after continuous chronic exposure to RF radiation at SARs close to the current levels set by ICNIRP guidelines.