Effects of tilt on high-resolution ADF-STEM imaging

Ultramicroscopy. 2008 Jul;108(8):718-26. doi: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2007.11.003. Epub 2007 Nov 13.


A study of the effects of small-angle specimen tilt on high-resolution annular dark field images was carried out for scanning transmission electron microscopes with uncorrected and aberration-corrected probes using multislice simulations. The results indicate that even in the cases of specimen tilts of the order of 1 degree a factor of 2 reduction in the contrast of the high-resolution image should be expected. The effect holds for different orientations of the crystal. Calculations also indicate that as the tilted specimen gets thicker the contrast reduction increases. Images simulated with a low-angle annular dark field detector show that tilt effects are more pronounced in this case and suggest that these low-angle detectors can be used to correct specimen tilt during scanning transmission electron microscopes operation.