We review development of evidence and current perceptions of the multiple and significant functions of cardiac troponin I in regulation and modulation of cardiac function. Our emphasis is on the unique structure function relations of the cardiac isoform of troponin I, especially regions containing sites of phosphorylation. The data indicate that modifications of specific regions cardiac troponin I by phosphorylations either promote or reduce cardiac contractility. Thus, a homeostatic balance in these phosphorylations is an important aspect of control of cardiac function. A new concept is the idea that the homeostatic mechanisms may involve modifications of intra-molecular interactions in cardiac troponin I.