Objective: To determine the relationship between the index to ring finger (2D:4D) length ratio and the risk of knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA).
Methods: We conducted a case-control study, in which cases with persistent symptoms and radiographic evidence of knee or hip OA were compared with controls with no symptoms and no radiographic evidence of knee or hip OA. Hand radiographs were visually classified as type 1 (index finger longer than the ring finger), type 2 (index finger equal to the ring finger), or type 3 (index finger shorter than the ring finger). The 2D:4D phalangeal and metacarpal length ratios were measured separately. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated and adjusted for possible confounding factors using a logistic regression model.
Results: Of 2,049 cases, 1,013 had radiographic evidence of knee OA and 995 had hip OA. Of 1,123 controls, 836 had no knee OA and 1,050 had no hip OA. The type 3 finger pattern was associated with knee OA (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.54-2.44), and the risk was greater in women (OR 3.05, 95% CI 2.08-4.47) than in men (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.08-1.95). There was a dose-response relationship between both 2D:4D phalangeal and metacarpal length ratios and the risk of knee OA. The risk of hip OA was inconsistent.
Conclusion: Compared with types 1 and 2, the type 3 "male" pattern 2D:4D length ratio is associated with OA, especially knee OA. The risk is independent of other major OA risk factors.