We assess the accuracy of the Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (AS-OCT) and present improved formulas for measurement of surface curvature and axial separation. Measurements are made in physical model eyes. Accuracy is compared for measurements of corneal thickness (d(1)) and anterior chamber depth (d(2)) using-built-in AS-OCT software versus the improved scheme. The improved scheme enables measurements of lens thickness (d(3)) and surface curvature, in the form of conic sections specified by vertex radii and conic constants. These parameters are converted to surface coordinates for error analysis. The built-in AS-OCT software typically overestimates [mean+/-standard deviation(SD)]d(1) by +62+/-4 mum and d(2) by + 4 +/- 88 microm. The improved scheme reduces d(1) (-0.4 +/- 4 microm) and d(2) (0 +/- 49 microm) errors while also reducing d(3) errors from +218 +/- 90 (uncorrected) to +14 +/- 123 microm (corrected). Surface x coordinate errors gradually increase toward the periphery. Considering the central 6-mm zone of each surface, the x coordinate errors for anterior and posterior corneal surfaces reached +3 +/- 10 and 0 +/- 23 microm, respectively, with the improved scheme. Those of the anterior and posterior lens surfaces reached +2 +/- 22 and +11 +/- 71 microm, respectively. Our improved scheme reduced AS-OCT errors and could, therefore, enhance pre- and postoperative assessments of keratorefractive or cataract surgery, including measurement of accommodating intraocular lenses.