Feeding with supplemental squalene enhances the productive performance in boars

Anim Reprod Sci. 2008 Mar 3;104(2-4):445-9. doi: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2007.08.003. Epub 2007 Aug 17.


In the present study, we investigated whether squalene could enhance the reproductive performance of boars. Boars at 12 months of age (weighting at 130+/-5 kg) were randomly allocated into four groups and treated with basal diet (control) or with basal diet supplemental squalene at 10, 20 or 40 mg squalene/kg/day for 60 days. The impact of squalene feeding on the reproductive performance and the levels of serum leptin and testosterone were evaluated before and after feeding. Feeding with squalene at 10 mg/kg/day neither significantly increase the reproductive performance and serum testosterone levels, nor reduced the levels of leptin in boars. Surprisingly, feeding with supplemental squalene at 20 or 40 mg/kg/day significantly improved the reproductive performance as evidenced by dramatically reduced the time for mating, increased semens' volume and motility, and increased the size of litter as compared with that in controls. Furthermore, feeding with a higher dose of squalene significantly reduced the levels of serum leptin, accompanied by elevated levels of testosterone, as compared with that in controls. These data clearly indicate that feeding with squalene can improve the reproductive performance in boars. Therefore, dietary supplementation with squalene may increase the productivity of pig industry and potentially benefit for other animal production.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Female
  • Leptin / blood*
  • Litter Size / drug effects
  • Litter Size / physiology
  • Male
  • Random Allocation
  • Reproduction / drug effects
  • Reproduction / physiology*
  • Sexual Behavior, Animal / drug effects
  • Sexual Behavior, Animal / physiology*
  • Sperm Motility / drug effects
  • Sperm Motility / physiology
  • Squalene / administration & dosage*
  • Swine / blood
  • Swine / physiology*
  • Testosterone / blood*


  • Leptin
  • Testosterone
  • Squalene