Inhibition of Murine AIDS by Pro-Glutathione (GSH) Molecules

Antiviral Res. 2008 Feb;77(2):120-7. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.11.004. Epub 2007 Dec 17.

Abstract

Antioxidant molecules can be used both to replenish the depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) occurring during HIV infection, and to inhibit HIV replication. The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of two pro-GSH molecules able to cross the cell membrane more easily than GSH. We used an experimental animal model consisting of C57BL/6 mice infected with the LP-BM5 viral complex; the treatments were based on the intramuscular administration of I-152, a pro-drug of N-acetylcysteine and S-acetyl-beta-mercaptoethylamine, and S-acetylglutathione, an acetylated GSH derivative. The results show that I-152, at a concentration of 10.7 times lower than GSH, caused a reduction in lymph node and spleen weights of about 55% when compared to infected animals and an inhibition of about 66% in spleen and lymph node virus content. S-acetylglutathione, at half the concentration of GSH, caused a reduction in lymph node weight of about 17% and in spleen and lymph node virus content of about 70% and 30%, respectively. These results show that the administration of pro-GSH molecules may favorably substitute for the use of GSH as such.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcysteine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Acetylcysteine / pharmacology
  • Acetylcysteine / therapeutic use
  • Animals
  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cysteamine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Cysteamine / pharmacology
  • Cysteamine / therapeutic use
  • DNA, Viral / drug effects
  • DNA, Viral / genetics
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Glutathione / analogs & derivatives*
  • Glutathione / pharmacology
  • Glutathione / therapeutic use
  • Hypergammaglobulinemia / drug therapy
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Leukemia Virus, Murine / drug effects
  • Leukemia Virus, Murine / genetics
  • Leukemia Virus, Murine / isolation & purification
  • Lymph Nodes / drug effects
  • Lymph Nodes / physiopathology
  • Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy*
  • Organ Size / drug effects
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prodrugs / pharmacology
  • Prodrugs / therapeutic use*
  • Spleen / drug effects
  • Spleen / physiopathology

Substances

  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • DNA, Viral
  • I-152 compound
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Prodrugs
  • S-acetylglutathione
  • Cysteamine
  • Glutathione
  • Acetylcysteine