Noncontact, high resolution measurements of anterior eye structures using optical coherence domain reflectometry are described. Distances between intraocular structures are measured by directing a beam of short coherence length light onto the eye and performing an interferometric measurement on the optical group delay of reflected signals. Measurements of corneal thickness, corneal excision depth, and anterior chamber depth are demonstrated in vitro, and the location of tissue boundaries is resolved to within +/- 2 microns. The full-width-half-maximum longitudinal resolution is 10 microns. Sensitivities to reflected signals as small as 10(-10) of the incident power are achieved by heterodyne detection.