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Review
, 260 (1-2), 1-10

Field Defects in Progression to Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

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Review

Field Defects in Progression to Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

Carol Bernstein et al. Cancer Lett.

Abstract

A field of defective tissue may represent a pre-malignant stage in progression to many cancers. However, field defects are often overlooked in studies of cancer progression through assuming tissue at some distance from the cancer is normal. We indicate, however, the generality of field defects in gastrointestinal cancers, including cancers of the oropharynx, esophagus, stomach, bile duct, pancreas, small intestine and colon/rectum. Common features of these field defects are reduced apoptosis competence, aberrant proliferation and genomic instability. These features are often associated with high bile acid exposure and may explain the association of dietary-related factors with cancer progression.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Colonic epithelial patches of field defects arising and expanding within pre-existing areas with field defects, in progression to adenocarcinoma. The dark area represents an adenocarcinoma.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Probable general pathway for how a field defect may develop.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
The diagram on the left shows the location of the hepatic ducts, the common bile duct, the stomach, duodenum, pancreas and how the bile duct and pancreatic duct form the duodenal papilla where the bile and pancreatic enzymes enter the duodenum. The diagram on the right shows an enlarged area containing the duodenal papilla, with the duct mucosa indicated and red irregular forms indicating where some tumors may form.

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