Tartary buckwheat [Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaench] is rich in rutin and D- chiro-inositol (DCI), which have beneficial effects in the treatment of hemorrhagic diseases and insulin-resistant diseases, respectively. The current methods of extraction and detection of rutin and DCI are complex and time-consuming; a simple way of analyzing these compounds in the native matrix would be desirable. In this work, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied to determine the contents of rutin and DCI in tartary buckwheat. The spectral data were compared with those determined from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. Models for predicting rutin and DCI contents in buckwheat were developed using a partial least-squares algorithm. Cross-validation procedures indicated good correlations between HPLC data and NIRS predictions (R2 = 0.76 for rutin and R2 = 0.86 for DCI). The rutin content ranged from 0.998 to 1.75%, while the DCI content covered 0.179-0.200%. The results showed that NIRS, a well-established and widely applied technique, could be applied to determine rutin and DCI in tartary buckwheat rapidly and nondestructively.