Background and objectives: A new 10% liquid human intravenous immunoglobulin (US trade name: Gammagard Liquid; European trade name: KIOVIG) manufactured by a process with three dedicated pathogen inactivation/removal steps (solvent/detergent treatment, 35-nm nanofiltration and low pH/elevated temperature incubation) was developed. The ability of the manufacturing process to inactivate/remove viruses and prions was investigated.
Materials and methods: Virus and prion removal capacities were assessed with down-scale spiking experiments, validated for equivalence to the large-scale process.
Results: Lipid-enveloped viruses were completely inactivated/removed by each of the three dedicated virus clearance steps, and for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV), also by the upstream cold ethanol fractionation step. Relevant non-enveloped viruses [i.e. hepatitis A virus (HAV) and parvovirus B19 (B19V)] were effectively removed by nanofiltration and the cold ethanol fractionation step, and partial inactivation of non-enveloped viruses was achieved by low pH incubation. Overall log reduction factors were > 20.0 for HIV-1, > 18.1 for bovine viral diarrhoea virus, > 16.3 for West Nile virus, > 10.0 for influenza A virus subtype H5N1, > 21.8 for PRV, 12.0 for HAV, > 12.1 for encephalomyocarditis virus, 10.6 for B19V and 10.3 for mice minute virus. Prions (Western blot assay) were completely removed (> or = 3.2 mean log reduction) by a step of the cold ethanol fractionation process.
Conclusions: Introducing three dedicated virus-clearance steps in the manufacturing process of immunoglobulins from human plasma provides high margins of safety.