We investigated whether microRNA expression profiles can predict clinical outcome of NSCLC patients. Using real-time RT-PCR, we obtained microRNA expressions in 112 NSCLC patients, which were divided into the training and testing sets. Using Cox regression and risk-score analysis, we identified a five-microRNA signature for the prediction of treatment outcome of NSCLC in the training set. This microRNA signature was validated by the testing set and an independent cohort. Patients with high-risk scores in their microRNA signatures had poor overall and disease-free survivals compared to the low-risk-score patients. This microRNA signature is an independent predictor of the cancer relapse and survival of NSCLC patients.