Characterization and expression analysis of TERMINAL FLOWER1 homologs from cultivated alloteraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and its diploid progenitors

J Plant Physiol. 2008 Oct 9;165(15):1636-46. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2007.10.013. Epub 2008 Jan 2.


The seasonal cycle and persistence of a plant is governed by a combination of the determinate or indeterminate status of shoot and root apical meristems. A perennial plant is one in which the apical meristem of at least one of its shoot axes remains indeterminate beyond the first growth season. TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) genes play important roles in regulating flowering time, the fate of inflorescence meristem and perenniality. To investigate the role of TFL1-like genes in the determination of the apical meristems in an industrially important crop cultivated for its fibers, we isolated and characterized two TFL1 homologs (TFL1a and TFL1b) from tetraploid cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and its diploid progenitors (Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium raimondii). All isolated genes maintain the same exon-intron organization. Their phylogenetic analysis at the amino acid level confirmed that the isolated sequences are TFL1-like genes and collocate in the TFL1 clade of the PEBP protein family. Expression analysis revealed that the genes TFL1a and TFL1b have slightly different expression patterns, suggesting different functional roles in the determination of the meristems. Additionally, promoter analysis by computational methods revealed the presence of common binding motifs in TFL1-like promoters. These are the first reported TFL1-like genes isolated from cotton, the most important crop for the textile industry.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / physiology*
  • Gossypium / genetics*
  • Gossypium / metabolism*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phylogeny
  • Plant Proteins / genetics*
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism*
  • Ploidies*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics


  • Plant Proteins