A proposed grading system for arteriovenous malformations. 1986

J Neurosurg. 2008 Jan;108(1):186-93. doi: 10.3171/JNS/2008/108/01/0186.


An important factor in making a recommendation for treatment of a patient with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is to estimate the risk of surgery for that patient. A simple, broadly applicable grading system that is designed to predict the risk of morbidity and mortality attending the operative treatment of specific AVM's is proposed. The lesion is graded on the basis of size, pattern of venous drainage, and neurological eloquence of adjacent brain. All AVM's fall into one of six grades. Grade I malformations are small, superficial, and located in non-eloquent cortex; Grade V lesions are large, deep, and situated in neurologically critical areas; and Grade VI lesions are essentially inoperable AVM's. Retrospective application of this grading scheme to a series of surgically excised AVM's has demonstrated its correlation with the incidence of postoperative neurological complications. The application of a standardized grading scheme will enable a comparison of results between various clinical series and between different treatment techniques, and will assist in the process of management decision-making.

Publication types

  • Biography
  • Classical Article
  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Cerebral Angiography / history*
  • History, 20th Century
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnostic imaging
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / history*
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / surgery
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Risk Assessment / history*

Personal name as subject

  • Robert F Speizler
  • Neil A Martin