The present review discusses the most frequent sport-related conditions which can present to rheumatologists and the available evidence base for using ultrasonography (US) in such scenarios. From a rheumatological perspective, sports-related pathology is mainly characterised by sub-acute and chronic overuse and stress-related disorders involving tendons, ligaments, muscles, joints and entheses. Major acute injuries are less frequently assessed in a standard rheumatological setting.Longitudinal studies are required to determine the clinical importance of US findings in athletes, particularly those who are asymptomatic. US findings need to be correlated with standard references including surgical and magnetic resonance imaging assessments. Future research should also be directed at determining the usefulness of power Doppler technique in monitoring sport-related abnormalities.