Transport ATPases can be lumped into four distinct types, P, F, V, and ABC, with the first three designated 20 years ago (Pedersen, P.L. and Carafoli, E., Trends Biochem. Sci. 12, 146-150, 1987) and the ABC type included more recently. The mini-reviews (>20) that comprise this volume of the Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes describe work presented at the 2007 FASEB Conference (6th) on Transport ATPases (Kathleen Sweadner, Chair; Rajini Rao, Co-Chair). Since these conferences began in 1997, the "transport ATPase field" has seen tremendous progress. Advances include a much better understanding of the structure, mechanism, and regulation of each of the four major ATPase types as well as their physiological and medical relevance. In fact, the transport ATPase field has entered a new era in which work on these enzymes is likely to contribute to new therapies for multiple diseases that affect both people and animals. Among these are cancer and heart disease, mitochondrial diseases, osteoporosis, macromolecular degeneration, immune deficiency, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, ulcers, nephro-toxicity, hearing loss, skin disorders, lupus, and malaria. In addition, as several members of the transport ATPase family include those involved in drug resistance their study may help alleviate this recurring problem in drug development. Finally, the transport ATPase field is also paving the way for nanotechnology focused on nano-motors with work on the F-type ATPases (F(0)F(1)) leading the way. These ATPases driven in reverse by a proton gradient have the capacity to interconvert electrochemical energy into mechanical energy and finally into chemical energy conserved in the terminal bond of ATP. In mammalian mitochondria these events occur on a larger complex or "nano-machine" called the "ATP synthasome" that consists of the ATP synthase in complex formation with carriers for P(i) and ADP/ATP.