Autoantibody production is an important feature of many autoimmune disorders, signifying a breakdown of immune tolerance to self-antigens. In celiac disease, an autoimmune enteropathy with multiple extra-intestinal manifestations, autoantibody reactivity to transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been shown to closely correlate with the acute phase of the disease. It serves as a specific and sensitive marker of celiac disease, and is highly useful in aiding diagnosis and follow-up. Immune reactivity to other autoantigens, including transglutaminase 3, actin, ganglioside, collagen, calreticulin and zonulin, among others, has also been reported in celiac disease. The clinical significance of these antibodies is not known, although some may be associated with specific clinical presentations or extra-intestinal manifestations of celiac disease. This review examines the presence of anti-TG2 and other autoantibodies in celiac disease, discussing their diagnostic value, their potential role in disease pathogenesis and current hypotheses that explain how their release may be triggered.