Inadequate evaluation of vaccine coverage after mass vaccination campaigns, such as used in national measles control programmes, can lead to inappropriate public health responses. Overestimation of vaccination coverage may leave populations at risk, whilst underestimation can lead to unnecessary catch-up campaigns. The problem is more complex in large urban areas where vaccination coverage may be heterogeneous and the programme may have to be fine-tuned at the level of geographic subunits. Lack of accurate population figures in many contexts further complicates accurate vaccination coverage estimates. During the evaluation of a mass vaccination campaign carried out in N'Djamena, the capital of Chad, Lot Quality Assurance Sampling was used to estimate vaccination coverage. Using this method, vaccination coverage could be evaluated within smaller geographic areas of the city as well as for the entire city. Despite the lack of accurate population data by neighbourhood, the results of the survey showed heterogeneity of vaccination coverage within the city. These differences would not have been identified using a more traditional method. The results can be used to target areas of low vaccination coverage during follow-up vaccination activities.