Cathelicidin production by human myeloid cells stimulated through toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/1, the migration of human CD8+ T cells to inflamed skin sites, and the ability of murine dendritic cells (DCs) to migrate from skin sites of vaccination to mucosal lymphoid organs all occur via calcitriol-dependent mechanisms. Herein, we report that murine DCs exposed to TLR3/TLR4 ligands upregulate their expression of 1 alpha-hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts circulating 25(OH)D3 to calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D3. TLR3/TLR4 ligands injected subcutaneously affect DC migration in vivo, allowing their trafficking to both draining and non-draining systemic and mucosal lymphoid organs. Subcutaneously delivered vaccines containing TLR3/TLR4 ligands and antigen stimulate the induction of both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Vaccines containing TLR9 ligands fail to stimulate 1 alpha-hydroxylase protein expression, are incapable of redirecting DC migration into Peyer's patches and do not induce mucosal immune responses. These findings support a hypothesis that active metabolites of vitamin D3 produced locally are able to affect various aspects of innate and acquired immune responses.