Tickborne encephalitis (TBE) virus infections can be asymptomatic or cause moderate to severe injuries of the central nervous system. Why some individuals develop severe disease is unknown, but a role for host genetic factors has been suggested. To investigate whether chemokine receptor CCR5 is associated with TBE, CCR5Delta32 genotyping was performed among Lithuanian patients with TBE (n=129) or with aseptic meningoencephalitis (n=76) as well as among control subjects (n=134). We found individuals homozygous for CCR5Delta32 (P= .026) only among patients with TBE and a higher allele prevalence among patients with TBE compared with the other groups studied. CCR5Delta32 allele prevalence also increased with the clinical severity of disease.