The past two decades have seen an upsurge in interest in the biology of naturally occurring gases, starting with nitric oxide and extending through to carbon monoxide. The latest addition to the list of biologically relevant gases is hydrogen sulfide. In the past few years, hydrogen sulfide has transited rapidly from environmental pollutant to biologically relevant mediator with potential roles in several physiological processes and disease states. Further, interest is now being shown in developing drugs which either mimic its effects or block its biosynthesis. Similarly to its gaseous cousins, the biology of hydrogen sulfide is proving to be complex and difficult to unravel.