An ab initio G3-type/statistical theory study of the formation of indene in combustion flames. II. The pathways originating from reactions of cyclic C5 species-cyclopentadiene and cyclopentadienyl radicals

J Phys Chem A. 2008 Jan 31;112(4):700-16. doi: 10.1021/jp077493f. Epub 2008 Jan 9.


Chemically accurate ab initio Gaussian-3-type calculations of various rearrangements on the C10H11 potential energy surface have been performed to investigate the indene formation mechanism originating from the reactions of two abundant cyclic C5 species, cyclopentadiene and cyclopentadienyl radicals. Using the accurate ab initio data, statistical theory calculations have been applied to obtain high-pressure-limit thermal rate constants within the 300-3000 K temperature range, followed by calculations of relative product yields. Totally, 12 reaction pathways leading to indene and several azulene precursors, 1,5-, 1,7-, 1,8a-, and 1,3a-dihydroazulene, have been mapped out, and the relative contributions of each pathway to the formation of reaction products have been estimated. At temperatures relevant to combustion, the indene has been found as the major reaction product (>50%) followed by 1,5-dihydroazulene (25-35%), whereas all other products demonstrate either minor or negligible yields. The results of the present study have been combined with our previous data for rearrangements of the 9-H-fulvalenyl radical on the C10H9 potential energy surface to draw the detailed picture of radical-promoted reaction mechanisms leading from c-C5 species to the production of indene, naphthalene, azulene, and fulvalene in combustion. The suggested mechanism and computed product yields are consistent with the experimental data obtained in the low-temperature pyrolysis of cyclopentadiene, where indene and naphthalene have been found as the major reaction products.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Azulenes / chemical synthesis
  • Azulenes / chemistry
  • Cyclopentanes / chemistry*
  • Free Radicals / chemistry
  • Fuel Oils*
  • Indenes / chemical synthesis*
  • Indenes / chemistry
  • Models, Chemical*
  • Models, Statistical*
  • Molecular Structure
  • Quantum Theory*
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Temperature


  • Azulenes
  • Cyclopentanes
  • Free Radicals
  • Fuel Oils
  • Indenes
  • dihydroazulene