Coronary heart diseases (CHD) and the acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as a possible manifestation of CHD are seen as one the most important chronic conditions until now. Female patients account for approximately one third of all cases of AMI in Germany. Despite the high incidence and prevalence, women after myocardial infarction remained seriously neglected for decades in epidemiological and clinical studies. In this review gender-specific aspects of health care delivery and cardiac rehabilitation after an AMI are summarized. Gender-specific targets and recommendations in current guidelines and different needs for medical and psychosocial interventions as well as the current practice of health care delivery will be discussed. Empirical data suggest that health care for female patients after AMI does not follow existing guidelines as strictly as the health care for male patients; the reasons are widely unknown. There is a tremendous need for further research on gender-specific differences in health care needs and in the effectiveness of health care interventions in male and female cardiac patients. Systematic knowledge is an essential precondition for the development of gender specific guidelines for the health care and rehabilitation of patients after AMI.