Anal intraepithelial neoplasia III (AIN III) is a risk factor for anal cancer with poor curative results and high morbidity. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) is a minimally invasive means of identifying and treating AIN III early. We retrospectively reviewed HRA in the treatment of AIN III in a community setting. From January 2002 through November 2005, 76 patients with AIN III diagnosed by anal Pap smear, colposcopy, or biopsy underwent HRA for diagnosis and treatment. Twenty-one patients with AIN III on initial HRA underwent follow-up HRA for reassessment and treatment at 6 months. Recurrence/persistence of disease was recorded and compared with patient characteristics. Of 21 patients with repeat HRA, four were HIV-negative and 17 were HIV-positive. Twelve of 21 (57%) had intraanal recurrence/persistence; nine of 21 (43%) had no AIN III. Eleven (92%) with recurrence were HIV-positive; one (8%) was HIV-negative. Three (75%) HIV-negative patients had no recurrence/persistence; one of four (25%) had recurrence; and 11 of 17 (65%) HIV-positive patients had persistence of disease. HRA is an alternative tool to treat AIN III and can be performed in a community setting yielding results comparable to the university setting. As the prevalence of AIN III increases, it will be more important for community surgeons to treat AIN III with HRA.