The most common mutation in the nephropathic cystinosis (CTNS) gene is a homozygous 57-kb deletion that also includes an adjacent gene carbohydrate kinase-like (CARKL). The latter gene encodes a protein that is predicted to function as a carbohydrate kinase. Cystinosis patients with the common 57-kb deletion had strongly elevated urinary concentrations of sedoheptulose (28-451 mmol/mol creatinine; controls and other cystinosis patients <9) and erythritol (234-1110 mmol/mol creatinine; controls and other cystinosis patients <148). Enzyme studies performed on fibroblast homogenates derived from patients carrying the 57-kb deletion revealed 80% reduction in their sedoheptulose phosphorylating activity compared to cystinosis patients with other mutations and controls. This indicates that the CARKL-encoded protein, sedoheptulokinase (SHK), is responsible for the reaction: sedoheptulose + ATP --> sedoheptulose-7-phosphate + ADP and that deletion of CARKL causes urinary accumulation of sedoheptulose and erythritol.
Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.