It is unclear which induction therapy yields the best outcomes in pediatric kidney transplantation. Retrospective data of 88 children receiving a renal allograft between November 1996 and October 2003 were analyzed. Patients received ATGI (n = 12), BI (n = 29), or NAI (n = 47). The mean ATG dose was 5.1 +/- 2.1 mg/kg. At 12 months, graft survival rates were 91.7%, 100%, and 97.9% for ATGI, BI, and NAI groups, respectively. Acute rejection rates at 12 months were 0 (ATGI), 20.6% (BI), and 10.7% (NAI). The mean GFR for ATGI (42.4 +/- 25.9 mL/min) was lower than for BI (78.3 +/- 27.2 mL/min), and NAI (66 +/- 28.3 mL/min) at 12 months (p < 0.05). One ATGI patient developed CMV pneumonia but none developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Although there was no renal allograft survival benefit with either ATGI or BI, relative to NAI, the absence of acute rejection and equivalent rates of viral infections in the higher-risk ATGI recipient group suggests that the treatment strategy is promising. A large prospective study is needed to better define the role of ATGI in pediatric kidney transplantation.