Objective: To evaluate temporal changes in histopathological types of bladder cancer and to assess associated changes in demographic, epidemiologic, and lifestyle risk factors.
Methods: We abstracted data from all available medical records from the National Cancer Institute of Cairo University (NCI-Cairo). Six calendar years representing 5-year periods between 1980 and 2005 were evaluated. Information on demographics, schistosomal infection, clinical symptoms of bladder cancer, and tumor pathology was abstracted.
Results: During this 26-year period, important changes in the frequency of histopathological types of bladder cancer occurred. We found a statistically significant association between time period of diagnosis and histopathological type. Patients diagnosed in 2005 had a sixfold higher odds associated with transitional cell carcinoma compared to those patients diagnosed in 1980 (odds ratio (OR) 6.00 (95% CI 4.00-8.97)).
Conclusions: These data strongly suggest that the histopathological profile of bladder cancer in Egypt has changed significantly over the past 26 years. Historically, squamous cell carcinoma was the predominant form of bladder cancer in Egypt; however transitional cell carcinoma has become the most frequent type. These results corroborate findings from a few small-scale hospital-based studies which conclude that the etiology of bladder cancer in Egypt has changed significantly over the past 26 years.