Waterpipe smoking is becoming fashionable in Lebanon, but no studies have studied nicotine dependence related to waterpipe smoking. A score was constructed from 21 items and subsequently submitted to two factor analyses, which led to the extraction of four factors. Reliability and test-retest reproducibility were measured. Convergent construct validity and discriminant validity also were assessed for different smokers' samples. The Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale-11 (LWDS-11) was composed of four subscales, the first representing nicotine dependence, the second negative reinforcement, the third psychological craving, and the fourth positive reinforcement. Internal consistency and test-retest reproducibility were adequate, and the subscales correlated adequately with measurements of nicotine metabolites, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, and the frequency of waterpipe smoking. The LWDS-11 discriminated between mild, moderate, and heavy waterpipe smokers, based on a threshold score of 10. Results were biologically and psychologically sound. This is the first scale to characterize waterpipe dependence. With further improvement and confirmation, it could become a useful clinical and epidemiological tool.