Tobacco smoking among low-income Black women: demographic and psychosocial correlates in a community sample

Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Jan;10(1):219-29. doi: 10.1080/14622200701767845.


This study sought to identify demographic and psychosocial correlates of cigarette smoking among low-income U.S. Black females. A total of 263 women provided demographic information and completed measures of perceived stress, anger, and alcohol and tobacco use. The analyses examined smoking using two variables: (a) smoking status category (nonsmokers [0 cigarettes/day], light smokers [1-10 cigarettes/day], moderate smokers [11-19 cigarettes/day], and heavy smokers [> or =20 cigarettes/day]) and (b) a continuous measure of cigarettes smoked daily. Multinomial logistic (MLR) and hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) analyses were used to model demographic, psychological, and alcohol use correlates of smoking. Results indicated that 30% of the sample were nonsmokers, 44% reported light smoking, 6% were moderate smokers, and 20% were heavy smokers. Both regression models explained a significant proportion of the variance in smoking, accounting for 57% and 31%, respectively. Across smoking categories, the odds of smoking were greater for older women who had less education, lower income, greater perceived stress, and more frequent heavy alcohol use. Number of cigarettes smoked daily was associated with similar factors, including less education and income, and older age. Heavy smoking was predicted by having fewer children. Current drinking was associated with light and heavy smoking, and with the extent of daily smoking. Anger was not a predictor of smoking in either model. A more complete understanding of the demographic and psychosocial factors associated with smoking among Black women can inform prevention and cessation strategies aimed at this population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • African Americans / statistics & numerical data*
  • Anger
  • Anxiety
  • Attitude to Health / ethnology*
  • Female
  • Health Behavior
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Middle Aged
  • Poverty*
  • Quality of Life
  • Smoking / ethnology*
  • Smoking Cessation / ethnology*
  • Smoking Prevention
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United States / epidemiology