A 1-year retrospective multicentre study was performed to identify factors influencing hospital length of stay (LOS) and mortality of patients (n = 3233) admitted to hospital because of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Pneumonia severity index (PSI) high-risk classes (IV and V), positive blood culture, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), multi-lobar involvement and alcohol consumption were associated independently with prolonged LOS. Tobacco smoking was associated with a reduced LOS. The LOS varied markedly among centres. Only PSI high-risk class, admission to ICU and multi-lobar involvement were associated with early, late and global mortality. Positive blood cultures, antimicrobial therapy according to treatment guidelines and the establishment of an aetiological diagnosis were linked to reduced late and global mortality. These data suggest that early mortality associated with CAP is highly dependent on the clinical status of the patient at presentation. Conversely, late mortality seems to be associated more closely with clinical management factors; hence, an aetiological diagnosis and compliance with appropriate therapeutic guidelines have a significant influence on outcome.